Hearsay Evidence: What is it, and why is it dangerous?

by Admin2

Understanding Hearsay Evidence: Risks and Implications in UK Law

Hearsay evidence, a legal concept allowing statements made outside of the courtroom to be admitted as evidence, poses significant challenges to the integrity of the judicial process. In the UK, hearsay evidence has been the subject of extensive legal scrutiny and reform due to its potential to contribute to wrongful convictions. This article provides a detailed analysis of hearsay evidence, its application under UK law, notable cases of overturned convictions, and the critical implications for justice, including its impact on Kevan Thakrar’s case.

What is Hearsay Evidence?

Hearsay evidence refers to statements made outside the courtroom that are presented in court to prove the truth of the matter asserted. Unlike direct evidence, hearsay is second-hand information, which makes it inherently unreliable. The primary concern with hearsay evidence is that it deprives the accused of the opportunity to cross-examine the original source of the information.

Legal Framework

The admissibility of hearsay evidence in the UK is governed by several key statutory provisions and common law principles:

  • Criminal Justice Act 2003: Sections 114 to 136 of this Act provide the primary framework for the admissibility of hearsay evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 114(1) sets out the circumstances under which hearsay evidence may be admitted, including when it is in the interests of justice or when the original witness is unavailable.

  • Section 116 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003: This section allows for hearsay evidence to be admitted if the witness is dead, unfit to testify, outside the UK, cannot be found, or is in fear. However, the court must be satisfied that the evidence is reliable and necessary for the interests of justice.

  • Common Law Exceptions: Prior to the Criminal Justice Act 2003, hearsay evidence was generally inadmissible under common law, with few exceptions, such as res gestae (statements made spontaneously or contemporaneously with an event) and statements made in furtherance of a common purpose.

“The use of hearsay evidence can undermine the fairness of a trial, as it prevents the accused from challenging the credibility of the original source. The safeguards provided by the Criminal Justice Act 2003 are crucial in ensuring that justice is not compromised.”

Notable Cases of Overturned Hearsay Convictions

Several high-profile cases illustrate the dangers of relying on hearsay evidence and the potential for wrongful convictions.

The Case of R v. Kearley

In R v. Kearley [1992] 2 AC 228, hearsay evidence was pivotal in the initial conviction. Kearley was accused of drug offences based on the testimonies of individuals who were not present at the trial. The House of Lords eventually overturned the conviction, citing the unreliability of the hearsay evidence and emphasising the importance of direct testimony in ensuring a fair trial.

“The Kearley case underscored the critical flaws in relying on hearsay evidence, which can often be unreliable and prejudicial. Direct testimony remains the gold standard for ensuring justice.”

The Case of Sally Clark

Sally Clark was wrongfully convicted in 1999 of murdering her two infant sons, based largely on flawed medical evidence and hearsay testimony from medical experts. Her conviction was overturned in 2003 after it was revealed that key medical evidence was withheld, and the hearsay nature of the expert testimony was critically flawed. This case highlighted the importance of scrutinising the reliability and context of hearsay evidence.

“The tragic case of Sally Clark underscores the critical importance of ensuring that all evidence, especially hearsay, is rigorously examined for reliability and accuracy. Her wrongful conviction was a stark reminder of the fallibility of such evidence.”

The Case of R v. Mushtaq Ahmed

In R v. Mushtaq Ahmed [2010] EWCA Crim 1986, the Court of Appeal quashed the conviction due to the improper use of hearsay evidence. Ahmed had been convicted based on statements made by witnesses who were not present at the trial. The Court found that the admission of these statements had unfairly prejudiced the jury against Ahmed, leading to a miscarriage of justice.

“The Ahmed case demonstrates the dangers of hearsay evidence, particularly when it unfairly influences the jury. Ensuring the reliability of evidence is paramount to upholding the integrity of the justice system.”

Legal Criticisms and Calls for Reform

Hearsay evidence has been widely criticised by legal scholars, human rights organisations, and advocacy groups. Key criticisms include:

  • Lack of Cross-Examination: Hearsay evidence prevents the accused from cross-examining the original source of the information, undermining the adversarial nature of the trial process.

    “The inability to cross-examine the original source of hearsay evidence significantly weakens the defence’s ability to challenge the reliability and credibility of the testimony.”

  • Potential for Misinterpretation: Hearsay statements can be easily misinterpreted or taken out of context, leading to false conclusions and wrongful convictions.

    “Hearsay evidence is prone to misinterpretation, as the context and nuances of the original statement are often lost. This can result in serious miscarriages of justice.” 

  • Inherent Unreliability: The second-hand nature of hearsay evidence makes it inherently unreliable, as it depends on the accuracy and honesty of both the original source and the person relaying the information.

    “Hearsay evidence is fraught with reliability issues, as it relies on multiple layers of transmission. Each layer introduces the potential for distortion and inaccuracy.” 

Why People Should Care

The flaws in hearsay evidence have significant implications for justice and human rights in the UK. Wrongful convictions not only devastate the lives of those directly affected but also undermine public confidence in the legal system. Cases like Kevan Thakrar’s highlight the urgent need for reform to ensure that justice is served fairly and accurately.

“Reforming the use of hearsay evidence is not just about correcting past wrongs; it’s about ensuring that our justice system is fair, just, and upholds the principles of individual responsibility and accountability.”

Kevan Thakrar: Implications for His Case

Kevan Thakrar’s conviction heavily relied on hearsay evidence, significantly undermining the fairness of his trial. Here are specific examples of how hearsay was used in his case and why it should have been deemed inadmissible:

  1. Unverified Witness Statements: During Thakrar’s trial, statements from supposed witnesses who heard second-hand accounts were admitted as evidence. These individuals were not present to verify their claims under oath, making it impossible for the defence to challenge their credibility effectively.

  2. Lack of Direct Testimony: Key pieces of evidence against Thakrar came from individuals who were either unavailable or unwilling to testify in court. This reliance on second-hand information prevented the jury from hearing the full context and potentially exculpatory details that direct testimony might have provided.

  3. Impact on Jury Perception: The use of hearsay evidence can unduly influence a jury’s perception, as it tends to present a one-sided narrative that the defence cannot properly contest. In Thakrar’s case, the jury was exposed to prejudicial statements without the opportunity for the defence to cross-examine and highlight inconsistencies or biases.

  4. Example of Misused Hearsay: One of the witnesses claimed to have overheard a conversation implicating Thakrar in the crime, but this statement was not subject to cross-examination. The defence could not question the witness about the context or reliability of what they allegedly heard, which could have revealed significant doubts about the veracity of the claim.

“Kevan Thakrar’s conviction, resting heavily on unchallenged hearsay evidence, is a prime example of how the justice system can fail. The inability to cross-examine these sources deprived Thakrar of a fair trial and justice.”

Why Hearsay Should Be Inadmissible in Such Cases

Hearsay evidence is particularly dangerous in serious criminal cases, such as those involving allegations of murder, where the stakes are incredibly high. The risk of wrongful conviction is amplified when the evidence cannot be rigorously tested through cross-examination. The cases of Sally Clark and R v. Kearley demonstrate how reliance on hearsay can lead to devastating miscarriages of justice.

For Thakrar, the use of hearsay evidence has not only resulted in a wrongful conviction but has also led to severe consequences, including prolonged solitary confinement and significant mental health deterioration. This injustice underscores the urgent need for legal reform to prevent future cases from being tainted by unreliable and unverified evidence.


The use of hearsay evidence, as currently applied, has led to numerous miscarriages of justice, including high

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